Git: What does it try to solve?
Most times I am collaborating with other researchers, we end up using Dropbox to keep the updated version of the article. More often than not, we both have copies of these same Dropbox folders somewhere else in our computers just to avoid conflicts or lose a previous version of our files (I know that one can see files from up to 30 days old on the website, or even more with the premium features, but I don’t find those particularly convenient). This can get clunky and often leads to dozens of different files with slightly different names. Even worse if you are sending versions back and forth by email.
There are other software that deal with this very same problem, they are usually called “version control systems”. The most famous one is called git, no, not github (github is a provider, much like gmail and email are not the same thing, but very related). Git was created by Linus Torvalds, the person behind the origin of Linux. He developed it when dealing with Linux development, which as an open source project, had to deal with several other people collaborating in the same code.
Git: Why should you care?
First, git will only sync when you ask it to. This sounds inconvenient, but it means that you are not caught by surprise when it changes. Second, you can put it anywhere you want in your computer and you tell it exactly what files you want synced, therefore you don’t get the rubbish like .aux, .log files if you compile your latex in the same folder. Third, it actually keeps copies of every past version you asked it to remember in your computer. This might sound inefficient for memory of the computer, but if you only ask it to remember the .tex files and not the .pdf files, it really doesn’t take a lot of memory. In fact, it does more than that! It let’s you create branches so you have parallel versions of that same file. All with a robust way of navigating between all such branches.
Let’s try to give an example. Suppose you finished the proof of your main result, but now you think you found a better proof that would require some substantial rewriting of the paper. But maybe you are not sure yet, so you don’t want to completely scrap the previous version. You can tell git to “create a new branch”, and you can edit your .tex files (or any other files tracked by git) freely without worrying about destroying your previous work. At the end, you may think that either the proof should be implemented or not, at which point you can tell git to merge these two versions into a single one, or just ignore/delete the new one. One could always manually keep track of several different files manually, but this can get messy. And it can become very tricky to backtrack your steps. By letting git take care of that, you don’t need to worry about it and you can concentrate only on the article writing itself.
Two things that really help organising are: whenever you make a commit i.e, you tell git to keep a new version, you are prompted to enter a quick message telling what you have done to the file. Even just a few words on every commit can make the process of looking at previous versions much easier. The second nice feature is that git let’s you see every single difference in the code, much like latex diff, line by line, highlighted so it is easy to see! Long gone the days manually trying to spot exactly what your collaborators changed in between version v-01-02-17.tex and v-01-02-22.tex.
I should mention that beside the command line/terminal, there are several programs that let you use git in a more “graphical” way, including atom’s integration with git, sourcetree and github desktop. I use the plugin vim-fugitive to deal with git. I think any of these solutions do a good job nowadays.
Git: References and Tutorials
- Missing semester - a site I will reference often for other topics. Here, they offer a 85’ talk about version control from theoretical to practical. They also offer a comprehensive. If you are confused about how do deal with the shell/terminal, do take a look at their first lecture, which I will talk about later on.
- Git, the simple guide the absolute
opposite of the previous item. This is a quick reference list that I always
come back to with only the basics.
- Oh shit, git In a very similar style to the previous item, but focusing on how to clean up your mistakes in git.
- Youtube playlist: coding train - git for poets a series of short videos introducing different aspects of git part by part. Very friendly even if you never used the command line.
- Book: Pro git: If you want to know git in a lot of detail, might be the way to go. But you do not need to go that deep on your first trial.